HTML Reloaded: A Guide for Students

HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language. It is a common bias for text to be presented in an internet browser. HyperText Markup Language was designed by a software company called the “Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG)”, about quarter a century ago in 1993, right after the Cold War ended.

In the morning of today, HyperText Markup Language has become more and more defunct and requires additional resources to support it for total enhancement of the demands for a user such as the most popular development from the Sun Microsystems, i.e, the one and only platform independent package, the JAVA Development Kit (JDK). HTML can create codes to display information on a particular site in a particular text listing through the form of scripts for JDK. A new variant called HTML5 can also promote flash player multi-media content.

HyperText Markup Language succeeded its predecessor pre-historic markup languages such as Generalized Markup Language (GML) and Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) before being superseded by the current markup languages of this generation such as Extensible Markup Language (XML) and Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML). Yet, it is still the main markup language used for designing the internet (World Wide Web).

Scope of the HyperText Markup Language (HTML):

The following is an example of the classic “Hello, World!” program:

<!DOCTYPE html>
    <title>This is a title</title>
        <p>Hello world!</p>

The text between <html> and </html> describes the web page, and the text between <body> and </body> is the visible page content. The markup text <title>This is a title</title> defines the browser page title shown on browser tabs and window titles, and the tag <div> defines a division of the page used for easy styling. Between <head> and </head>, a <meta> element can be used to define webpage metadata.

The Document Type Declaration¬†<!DOCTYPE html>¬†is for HTML5. If a declaration is not include, various browsers will revert to “quirks mode” for rendering.

Elements used in the HyperText Markup Language (HTML):

Header of the HTML document: <head>...</head>. The title is included in the head, for example:

  <title>The Title</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="stylebyjimbowales.css" /> <!-- Imports Stylesheets -->
HTML headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags with H1 being the highest (or most important) level and H6 the least:
<h1>Heading level 1</h1> <h2>Heading level 2</h2> <h3>Heading level 3</h3> <h4>Heading level 4</h4> <h5>Heading level 5</h5> <h6>Heading level 6</h6>

The effects are:

Heading Level 1

Heading Level 2

Heading Level 3

Heading Level 4

Heading Level 5

Heading Level 6

Note that CSS can drastically change the rendering.


<p>Paragraph 1</p> <p>Paragraph 2</p>

Line breaks:

<br>. The difference between <br> and <p> is that <br> breaks a line without altering the semantic structure of the page, whereas <p> sections the page into paragraphs. The element <br> is an empty element in that, although it may have attributes, it can take no content and it may not have an end tag.

<p>This <br> is a paragraph <br> with <br> line breaks</p>


There are many possible ways a user can give input/s like:

<input type="text" /> <!-- This is for text input -->
<input type="file" /> <!-- This is for uploading files -->
<input type="checkbox" /> <!-- This is for checkboxes -->


<!-- This is a comment -->

Comments can help in the understanding of the markup and do not display in the webpage.

There are several types of markup elements used in HTML:Structural markup indicates the purpose of text
For example, <h2>Golf</h2> establishes “Golf” as a second-level heading. Structural markup does not denote any specific rendering, but most web browsers have default styles for element formatting. Content may be further styled using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

Presentational markup indicates the appearance of the text, regardless of its purpose
For example, <b>bold text</b> indicates that visual output devices should render “boldface” in bold text, but gives little indication what devices that are unable to do this (such as aural devices that read the text aloud) should do. In the case of both <b>bold text</b> and <i>italic text</i>, there are other elements that may have equivalent visual renderings but that are more semantic in nature, such as <strong>strong text</strong> and <em>emphasized text</em> respectively.
It is easier to see how an aural user agent should interpret the latter two elements. However, they are not equivalent to their presentational counterparts: it would be undesirable for a screen-reader to emphasize the name of a book, for instance, but on a screen such a name would be italicized. Most presentational markup elements have become deprecated under the HTML 4.0 specification in favor of using CSS for styling.

Hypertext markup makes parts of a document into links to other documents
An anchor element creates a hyperlink in the document and its href attribute sets the link’s target URL. To render an image as a hyperlink, an img element is inserted as content into the a element. Like brimg is an empty element with attributes but no content or closing tag. <a

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